Millions no doubt have read or heard the Hans Christian Andersen tale of how some alleged weavers of long ago convinced their emperor that the new clothes they were selling him were made of such fine and rare material that only the stupid and incompetent could fail to see the exquisite threads. The emperor, not wishing to be exposed as either stupid or incompetent, bought the story and the invisible “clothes.” He wore nothing else as he went though the streets in a grand parade, hearing nothing but praise from his subjects on the excellence of his royal attire. Until one simple, unschooled child broke the spell by crying out the simple, unadorned truth: The emperor was wearing no clothes at all.
The nature of the relationship between “universals” — Humanity, Justice, Goodness, etc. — and “particulars” — this human being, this instance of justice, and that instance of goodness — is a matter that philosophers have been busy at work trying to iron out for millennia. On a reasonably broad spectrum, there are two rival poles: the one is represented by Plato, the other by John Locke.
Despite terrible reviews, Paranormal Activity 3, released last weekend, managed to break U.S. box office records. Initially, the third installment in the series seemed unworthy of The New American’s attention until it became apparent that there was something drawing moviegoers to fork over so many inflated dollars for a film that seemed at best uninteresting and at worst laughable. It turns out all the hoopla amounted to nothing: PA3 was spiritless — at least in the sense of dull as dishwater.