There was a reason why employers in the middle of the 19th century had signs that said, "No Irish need apply" — and why employers in the middle of the 20th century no longer had such signs. It was not that employers had changed. The Irish had changed.
This past Saturday, Barbara Billingsley passed away at the age of 94. For those of you scratching your heads but acquainted with 1950s television, Billingsley played the ever-gracious and loving, hearth-and-home mother June Cleaver in the classic sitcom "Leave It to Beaver."
On August 5, an accident occurred in the San Jose copper and gold mine in the town of Copiapo in northern Chile. 750,000 tons of rock collapsed, blocking the mine shaft and trapping 33 miners in their emergency refuge area more than 2,000 feet below ground. Since there was no way the men could communicate with the surface, the relatives of the miners did not know if they were dead or alive. But unbeknownst to those above ground, the miners were indeed alive.